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Living Filter

Living Filter

Living Filter

The algal blooms which can develop on the surface of potable water reservoirs are drawn into the intake to the treatment works and add significantly to their costs and chemical usage. We are developing an in-situ ‘Living Filter’ in potable water reservoirs, in order to remove algae from the intake by the grazing of microscopic organisms.

Prof. Hankins


Ana Teresa Castro-Castellon, Jocelyne Mary Rose Hughes, Daniel Steven Read, Yaldah Azimi, Michael James Chipps, Nicholas Peter Hankins: “The Role of Rhizofiltration and Allelopathy on the Removal of Cyanobacteria in a Continuous Flow System”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2021, 30th January. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-12343-9.

A.T. Castro-Castellon, M.J. Chipps, N.P. Hankins, J.M.R. Hughes: “Lessons from the ‘Living-Filter’: An in-reservoir floating treatment wetland for phytoplankton reduction prior to a water treatment works intake”, Ecological Engineering, 2016, 95, 839–851.

A.T. Castro-Castellon, M.J.Chipps, J.M.R.Hughes, and N.P.Hankins: “ Living-Filter: an in-Reservoir Biofiltration System for Phytoplankton Reduction at the Abstraction Point”, in Progress in  Slow Sand and Alternative Biological Filtration Processes: Further Development and Applications. Nobutada Nakamoto, Nigel Graham, M Robin Collins and Rolf Gimbel (eds.) 2014, pp. 405-410.