Conventional flocculation systems to treat raw potable water can have large physical and environmental footprints. We are optimizing an ultra-filtration process which includes an upstream pre-coagulation step for the removal of Natural Organic Matter from raw upland waters. This greatly reduces membrane fouling and the overall size and cost of the process.
Hankins, R. Price and N.A. Debacher: “Process Intensification During Treatment of NOM-laden Raw Upland Waters: Control and Impact of the Pre-Coagulation Regime During Ultra-filtration”, Desalination and Water Treatment. 2009, 8:1,1-15.
Price and N. Hankins, “Impact of Optimised Control of the Pre-Coagulation Regime During Ultra-filtration Treatment of Raw Upland Waters”, Water and Environment Journal. 2005, 19(4), 342-351.